Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for June, 2011

Russian education is famed for its pre-eminence in the areas of science and research. It is said that over one quarter of the world’s scientific literature is published in Russian. The value Russians place on education is evident in the nearly 100% literacy rate throughout the nation. As the largest country in the world, Russia has plenty to offer international students in education, culture, lifestyle, and much more.

Read Full Post »

Nikolai Sergeyevich Korotkov (26 February 1874 – 14 March 1920) was a Russian surgeon, a pioneer of 20th century vascular surgery, and the inventor of auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement.

* Korotkoff method is a non-invasive auscultatory technique for determining both systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. The method requires а sphygmomanometer and а stethoscope. Due to ease and accuracy, it is considered a “gold standard” for blood pressure measurement
* Korotkoff sounds are pulse-synchronous circulatory sounds heard through the stethoscope in auscultation of blood pressure using Riva-Rocci’s sphygmomanometer.
* Korotkoff test or Korotkoff sign is a collateral circulation test: in aneurysm, if the blood pressure in the peripheral circulation remains fairly high while the artery above the aneurysm is compressed, the collateral circulation is good.

Korotkov was honoured with the Order of St. Anna for “outstandingly zealous labours in helping the sick and wounded soldiers” with Russian military forces in the Far East during the Boxer Rebellion in China 1900. .

On his return Nikolai Korotkov turned his mind from military to academic pursuits and translated Eduard Albert’s monograph “Die Chirurgische Diagnostik” from German to Russian. In 1903, Dr Sergei Federov was appointed professor of surgery at the Military Medical Academy at St Petersburg, and he invited Korotkov to join him as assistant surgeon. During the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905, Korotkov went to Harbin in Manchuria as senior surgeon in charge of the Second St George’s Unit of the Red Cross. He became interested in vascular surgery and began to collect cases for his doctoral thesis, which included 41 of 44 case reports of patients who were part of his war experience in the hospital at Harbin.

Returning to St Petersburg in April 1905 he began to prepare his thesis, but it was a presentation to the Imperial Military Medical Academy in 1905 that earned him lasting fame. The technique of blood pressure measurement was reported in less than a page (only 281 words) of the “Izvestie Imp. Voiennomedicinskoi Akademii” (Reports of the Imperial Military Medical Academy):

“ The cuff of Riva-Rocci is placed on the middle third of the upper arm; the pressure within the cuff is quickly raised up to complete cessation of circulation below the cuff. Then, letting the mercury of the manometer fall one listens to the artery just below the cuff with a children’s stethoscope. At first no sounds are heard. With the falling of the mercury in the manometer down to a certain height, the first short tones appear; their appearance indicates the passage of part of the pulse wave under the cuff. It follows that the manometric figure at which the first tone appears corresponds to the maximal pressure. With the further fall of the mercury in the manometer one hears the systolic compression murmurs, which pass again into tones (second). Finally, all sounds disappear. The time of the cessation of sounds indicates the free passage of the pulse wave; in other words at the moment of the disappearance of the sounds the minimal blood pressure within the artery predominates over the pressure in the cuff. It follows that the manometric figures at this time correspond to the minimal blood pressure. ”

The critical comments of Korotkov’s peers were dealt with in an adroit manner, and he appeared a month later at the Imperial Military Academy with animal experiments to support his theory that the sounds he had described were produced locally, rather than in the heart. He earned the approbation of professor M. V. Yanovsky, who declared: “Korotkov has noticed and intelligently utilised a phenomenon which many observers have overlooked.” Yanovsky and his pupils verified the accuracy of the technique and described the phases of the auscultatory sounds and for a time technique was known as the Korotkov-Yanovsky method.

His famous invention came about in St. Petersburg and he worked all his life in Mechnikov Hospital located in the city where you students can come to study!

Read Full Post »

Ivan M. Sechenov, was a Russian physiologist, named by Ivan Pavlov as “The Father of Russian physiology”. Sechenov authored major classic Reflexes of the Brain introducing electrophysiology and neurophysiology into laboratories and teaching of medicine.

  • 1860 – M.D. from the Military-Medical Academy of St. Petersburg
  • 1860-1870 – professor at the St. Petersburg Medico-Surgical Academy. Foundation of the first Russian school of physiology. Sechenov resigned to protest the rejection of Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (the founder of immunology, the Nobel Prize laureate of 1908)
  • 1870 – chemical research in Mendeleev’s laboratory in St. Petersburg

Sechenov’s major interest was neurophysiology (the structure of the brain). He showed that brain activity is linked to electric currents and was the first to introduce electrophysiology. Among his discoveries was the cerebral inhibition of spinal reflexes. He also maintained that chemical factors in the environment of the cell are of great importance.

Between 1856 and 1862 Sechenov studied and worked in Europe in laboratories of Johannes Peter Mueller, Emil du Bois-Reymond, Hermann von Helmholtz (Berlin), Felix Hoppe-Seyler (Leipzig), Carl Ludwig (Vienna) and Claude Bernard (Paris).

Sechenov’s work laid the foundations for the study of reflexes, animal and human behavior, and neuroscience.

Read Full Post »

A dream of the Roerich family to create an Indian centre for studying culture and arts of Russia and India will shortly come true. The foundation stone of the Russian-Indian Academy of Arts has recently been laid in the Kulu Valley where the Roerichs of Russian origin lived for almost 30 years. The Roerichs were famous painters, philosophers and experts in oriental studies. The foundation stone was laid by Alexander Kadakin, Russian ambassador to India, vice-president, founder and life-time trustee of the Roerich International Memorial Trust.

The Roerich family, Nikolai and Elena and their children Yuri and Svetoslav, were interested in fine art, archeology, oriental languages, handicraft, music, botany and medicine and studied them. At present, the Institute of Himalayan Studies and the workshop of Nikolai Roerich are next to their house, which is a memorial museum. The Elena Roerich Arts School and Collage is in one of these buildings, says Alena Adamkova, the executive director and curator of the Russian-Indian Trust and the Roerich Museum:

“Over 150 children are studying at the school and the collage. However, many more children wish to study there. They study classical music, singing, dance, painting, weaving and wood-crafting besides general subjects. At present, we cannot admit more children owing to lack of space,” Alena Adamkova said.

However, this problem will be solved with the setting of the Russian-Indian Academy of Arts, says Alexander Kadakin: “We believe that the children of the Roerich school and college will shift to a new building next year. Ten million rupees allocated by the former Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee will be used to build the academy. The Russian companies, such as Vnesheconombank, Vneshtorgbank and Rosvooruzhenie are also involved in the project,” Alexander Kadakin said.

Read Full Post »

A chapter on Nikolay Roerich, an outstanding Russian painter, philosopher, traveller and scientist, has for the first time been included in Indian school books published in Hindi.

The book has been included in the compulsory curriculum for 11th form students of state schools of the Indian state Himachal Pradesh.

Roerich and his family lived in the West Himalayas from 1929.

Read Full Post »

Russian students got almost half of all medals in a team international programming contest in Orlando, Florida. The competition’s final was on Monday. Out of twelve awards, Russia brings home five, including one gold medal, which was won by students of St. Petersburg’s State University, ITAR-TASS reports.

Thus, Russia has been leading in programming contests since 2005, as at least one of four golden medals goes to Russia. Russia’s two other universities, from Nizhny Novgorod and Saratov, got silver medals, and two bronze medals were given to the Moscow and the Urals universities.

This year, the contest was organized for the 35th time. A team of three is to solve eight tasks within five hours. The team has only one computer to use. The team which is the first to offer programs solving most tasks is the winner.

Read Full Post »

Russian Mir submersibles will soon dive into the depths of Lake Geneva, the EPFL, the Swiss federal polytechnic institute in Lausanne announced. Fifteen teams from five countries (Russian, Switzerland, France, Great Britain and the United States) will carry out field research using the submersibles from June to August in a project dubbed Elemo.

Geology, biology (especially micro-pollutants and bacteriology) and physics projects will be undertaken to better understand how human activity affects the lake.

Anatoly Sagalevitch, a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the expedition leader for many missions on board the Mir submersibles, notably in the Arctic and Lake Baikal, will join the project for the summer of 2011, with his team.

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »