Archive for the ‘Medicine’ Category

Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner, either the initial training to become a doctor (i.e., medical school and internship) or additional training thereafter (e.g., residency and fellowship).

A person can also become a Paramedic/clinical officer /Physician assistant. This is what the many brave individuals in war zones and Africa do to save millions of lives.

Specialities usually fit into one of two broad categories: “Medicine” and “Surgery.” “Medicine” refers to the practice of non-operative medicine, and most subspecialties in this area require preliminary training in “Internal Medicine“.

Surgical specialties employ operative treatment. Surgery has many sub-specialties, including general surgery, cardiovascular surgery, colorectal surgery, neurosurgery, maxillofacial surgery, orthopedic surgery, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, oncologic surgery, transplant surgery, trauma surgery, urology, vascular surgery, and pediatric surgery.
Internal medicine is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, management and nonsurgical treatment of unusual or serious diseases, either of one particular organ system or of the body as a whole.


There are many subspecialities (or subdisciplines) of internal medicine:

•    Cardiology
•    Critical care medicine
•    Endocrinology
•    Gastroenterology
•    Geriatrics
•    Haematology
•    Hepatology
•    Infectious diseases
•    Nephrology
•    Oncology
•    Pediatrics
•    Pulmonology/Pneumology/Respirology
•    Rheumatology
•    Sleep medicine.

Other major specialties
The followings are some major medical specialties that do not directly fit into any of the above mentioned groups.
•    Anesthesiology
•    Dermatology
•    Emergency medicine is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of acute or life-threatening conditions, including trauma, surgical, medical, pediatric, and psychiatric emergencies.
•    Family medicine, family practice, general practice or primary care
•    Obstetrics and gynecology
•    Medical Genetics
•    Neurology
•    Ophthalmology

•    Pediatrics
•    Physical medicine and rehabilitation
•    Psychiatry
•    Preventive medicine is the branch of medicine concerned with preventing disease.
        o    Community health or public health
        o    Occupational medicine’s principal role is the provision of health advice to organizations and individuals to ensure that the highest standards of health and safety at work can be achieved and maintained.
        o    Aerospace medicine deals with medical problems related to flying and space travel.


Interdisciplinary fields
Some interdisciplinary sub-specialties of medicine include:
Addiction medicine deals with the treatment of addiction.
Biomedical Engineering is a field dealing with the application of engineering principles to medical practice.
Clinical pharmacology is concerned with how systems of therapeutics interact with patients.
Conservation medicine studies the relationship between human and animal health, and environmental conditions. Also known as ecological medicine, environmental medicine, or medical geology.
Diving medicine (or hyperbaric medicine) is the prevention and treatment of diving-related problems.
Forensic medicine deals with medical questions in legal context, such as determination of the time and cause of death.
Laser medicine involves the use of lasers in the diagnostics and/or treatment of various conditions.
Sexual medicine is concerned with diagnosing, assessing and treating all disorders related to sexuality.

Sports medicine deals with the treatment and preventive care of athletes, amateur and professional. The team includes specialty physicians and surgeons, athletic trainers, physical therapists, coaches, other personnel, and, of course, the athlete.
Therapeutics is the field, more commonly referenced in earlier periods of history, of the various remedies that can be used to treat disease and promote health.
Veterinary medicine; veterinarians apply similar techniques as physicians to the care of animals.

All the above can be studied with us! Who is in?

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Hippocratic Oath

The Hippocratic Oath is an oath historically taken by physicians and other healthcare professionals swearing to practice medicine ethically. It is widely believed to have been written by Hippocrates, often regarded as the father of western medicine, or by one of his students. The oath is written in Ionic Greek (late 5th century BC), and is usually included in the Hippocratic Corpus. Of historic and traditional value, the oath is considered a rite of passage for practitioners of medicine in many countries, although nowadays the modernized version of the text varies among them.

The Hippocratic Oath (orkos) is one of the most widely known of Greek medical texts. It requires a new physician to swear upon a number of healing gods that he will uphold a number of professional ethical standards.
A widely used modern version of the traditional oath was penned in 1964 by Dr. Louis Lasagna, former Principal of the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences and Academic Dean of the School of Medicine at Tufts University:

I swear to fulfill, to the best of my ability and judgment, this covenant:

I will respect the hard-won scientific gains of those physicians in whose steps I walk, and gladly share such knowledge as is mine with those who are to follow.

I will apply, for the benefit of the sick, all measures [that] are required, avoiding those twin traps of overtreatment and therapeutic nihilism.

I will remember that there is art to medicine as well as science, and that warmth, sympathy, and understanding may outweigh the surgeon’s knife or the chemist’s drug.

I will not be ashamed to say “I know not”, nor will I fail to call in my colleagues when the skills of another are needed for a patient’s recovery.

I will respect the privacy of my patients, for their problems are not disclosed to me that the world may know. Most especially must I tread with care in matters of life and death. If it is given to me to save a life, all thanks. But it may also be within my power to take a life; this awesome responsibility must be faced with great humbleness and awareness of my own frailty. Above all, I must not play at God.

I will remember that I do not treat a fever chart, a cancerous growth, but a sick human being, whose illness may affect the person’s family and economic stability. My responsibility includes these related problems, if I am to care adequately for the sick.

I will prevent disease whenever I can, for prevention is preferable to cure.

I will remember that I remain a member of society with special obligations to all my fellow human beings, those sound of mind and body as well as the infirm.

If I do not violate this oath, may I enjoy life and art, respected while I live and remembered with affection thereafter. May I always act so as to preserve the finest traditions of my calling and may I long experience the joy of healing those who seek my help.

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Hippocrates Prize for Poetry and Medicine was founded in 2009 by Donald Singer, a clinical professor, and poet and translator Michael Hulse.

The founders ‘wished to draw together national and international perspectives on three major historical and contemporary themes uniting the disciplines of poetry and medicine: medicine as inspiration for the writings of poets; effects of poetic creativity on the experience of illness by patients, their families, friends, and carers; and poetry as therapy.’ There are two awards: one for UK health students and National Health Service-related professionals, including educators, researchers, and biomedical scientists, and a second one, the International Hippocrates Prize for Poetry and Medicine, for an international open category for unpublished poems in English by any living poet.

The Hippocrates poetry and medicine initiative was short-listed in the 2011 Times Higher Education awards for Excellence and Innovation. This award aims to recognise the collaborative and interdisciplinary work that is taking place in universities to promote the arts. Entries were open to teams from all higher education institutions in the UK.

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Hippocrates of Cos (460 BC – ca. 370 BC) was an ancient Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Athens), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the father of Western medicine in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields that it had traditionally been associated with (notably theurgy and philosophy), thus establishing medicine as a profession.
Hippocrates is commonly portrayed as the paragon of the ancient physician, credited for coining the Hippocratic Oath, still relevant and in use today. He is also credited with greatly advancing the systematic study of clinical medicine, summing up the medical knowledge of previous schools, and prescribing practices for physicians through the Hippocratic Corpus and other works.

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The Egyptians – not the ancient Greeks – were the true fathers of medicine, according to a study that pushes back the origins by at least a millennium.

Scientists examining documents dating back 3,500 years say they have found proof that the inception lies not with Hippocrates (460BC-370BC) and the Greeks but in ancient Egypt and the likes of Imhotep (2667BC – 2648BC), who designed the pyramids at Saqqara and was elevated to become the god of healing.

James Henry Breasted says of Imhotep: “In priestly wisdom, in magic, in the formulation of wise proverbs; in medicine and architecture; this remarkable figure of Zoser’s reign left so notable a reputation that his name is not forgotten to this day”.

Imhotep is credited with being the founder of medicine and with being the author of a medical treatise remarkable for being devoid of magical thinking; the so-called Edwin Smith papyrus containing anatomical observations, ailments, and cures.

It is Imhotep, says Sir William Osler, who was the real “Father of Medicine”, “the first figure of a physician to stand out clearly from the mists of antiquity.”
The medical documents, which were first discovered in the mid-19th century, showed that ancient Egyptian physicians treated wounds with honey, resins and metals now known to have an antimicrobial action.
The team also discovered prescriptions for laxatives of castor oil, colocynth (a bitter fruit), figs and bran. Other references show that colic was treated with hyoscyamus plants, still used today, and that cumin and coriander were used to relieve flatulence. Further evidence showed that musculo-skeletal disorders were treated with rubefacients, which redden the skin, to stimulate blood flow, along with poultices to warm and soothe.
They used celery and saffron for rheumatism, which are currently topics of pharmaceutical research, and pomegranate was used to eradicate tapeworms, a remedy that remained in clinical use until half a century ago.
“Many of the ancient remedies we discovered survived into the 20th century and, indeed, some remain in use today, albeit that the active component is now produced synthetically,” said Dr Jackie Campbell of KNH Centre for Biomedical Egyptology at The University of Manchester.
Although apes are known to use medicines, such as the bitter pith of Vernonia amygdalina for the control of intestinal nematode infections, Prof David said that the ancient Egyptians can be thanked for the introduction of a structured medical and pharmacological system that continues to the present day. And of all the ancient Egyptians, it is Imhotep who was regarded as being the father of medicine. “He should have the credit,” said Prof Rosalie David, Director of the KNH Centre.

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studying BioMedical Engineering in Russia

Come study BioMedical Engineering in Russia with Council for Foreign Education in Russia’s; official Education partner of leading Russian State Universities with Council for Foreign education in Russia (CFER) under the Learning in Russia™ program for international students!

  • Biomedical Engineering

  • Biotechnical Systems and Technologies


    • Engineering in Life Science (Biomedical) practice
  • Faculty of Information, Measurement and Biotechnical Systems in Russia

BACHELORS in Biomedical Engineering in Russia

1)  Instrument Engineering
2)  Biomedical Engineering
3)  System Analysis and Control (Ergonomics)
4)  Technospheric Security

MASTERS in Biomedical Engineering in Russia

1)  Instrumentation technology

  • Instrumentations and Methods of Quality Control and Diagnostics
  • Acoustic Instruments and Systems
  • Laser Measuring Technology
  • Integrated Navigation Technology
  • Local Measuring and Computing Systems
  • Adaptive Measuring Systems

2)  Bioengineering systems and technologies

  • Biotechnical Systems and Technology for Prosthetics and Rehabilitation
  • Information Systems and Technologies in Patient care Institutions
  • Ergotechnical Systems
  • Biotechnical Systems and Environment Protection Technologies
  • Biocompatible Materials

  • Faculty of Medical Physics and Bio-Engineering in Russia

BACHELORS in Biomedical Engineering in Russia

  • Medical Physics and Bioengineering
  • Applied Physics of rehabilitation systems and equipment
  • Biotech and Medical Devices and Systems
  • Engineering in Life Sciences Practice

MASTERS in Biomedical Engineering in Russia

  • Medical and bioengineering physics
  • Physical and chemical biology and biotechnology
  • Physical and chemical basis for new materials and technologies in medicine and biotechnology
  • Rehabilitation equipment and systems
  • Biometrics identification techniques
  • Methods of analysis and synthesis of medical images
  • Medical and biological devices, systems and systems for non-invasive and remote monitoring of vital parameters of the human body
  • Medical and biological devices, systems and complexes
  • Management and marketing in the field of biomedical engineering

For applying to study Medical Engineering in one of the leading Russian State Universities go HERE and learn the step-by-step admission process at the end of the page. Then you may fill in all fields in our INFORMATION REQUEST Form and forward it to one of our e-mails: admissions@cferussia.ru or learninginrussia@gmail.com

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  • Institute of Innovations
  • Institute of International Educational Programs
  • Faculty of Management and Informational Technology

Majors: quality management systems, graphics and multimedia design, university foundation programs
Areas of research: digital signals processing, microwave electronics







  • Faculty of Civil Engineering
  • Faculty of Electrical Engineering
  • Faculty of Power Engineering
  • Faculty of Mechanical and Machinery Engineering
  • Faculty of Materials Science and Technology
  • Faculty of Complex Safety

Majors: industrial and civil engineering, high-voltage power engineering, thermal and nuclear power engineering, machine building technologies, electrical and electron engineering, applied mechanics.

Areas of research: machine building, applied mechanics, robots and robotics systems, environmental systems engineering, hydropower engineering, electrical machine building.







  • Faculty of Computer Science
  • Central Research Institute of Robotics and Technical Cybernetics

Majors: hardware development and architectures, software development, computer-aided design systems, systems analysis and control, instrument-making industry, distributed computing and networking

Areas of research: information and control systems, high-capacity computing and clusters, internet technologies, 3-d computer design






  • Faculty of Economics and Management
  • International Graduate School of Management
  • Faculty of Humanities
  • Faculty of Law
  • Faculty of Foreign Languages

Majors: banking and finance, organization management, marketing, public relations, foreign languages and culture studies, economics, law
Areas of research: linguistics, foreign languages, political science, international relations, social science and law

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