Archive for the ‘St. Petersburg State Medical University (First)’ Category

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1. Clinical Laboratory Services
2. Ophthalmology
3. Otolaryngology
4. Orthodontics
5. Public health organising
6. Oncology
7. General hygiene
8. General medical practice (family medicine)
9. Nephrology
10. Neonatology
11. Neurosurgery
12. Neurology
13. Obstetrics and Gynecology
14. Coloproctology
15. Pathology
16. Clinical Pharmacology
17. Cardiology
18. Infectious diseases
19. Pediatric Surgery
20. Dermatovenereology
21. Pediatric urology, andrology
22. Children’s Oncology
23. Hematology
24. Gastroenterology
25. Regenerative medicine
26. Anaesthesia and resuscitation
27. Allergy and Immunology
28. Physiotherapy and sports medicine
29. General dentist
30. Endocrinology
31. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
32. Surgery
33. Functional diagnosis
34. Phthisiatry
35. Physiotherapy
36. Urology
37. Ultrasound diagnosis
38. Traumatology and Orthopedics
39. Therapy
40. Forensic Medical Examination
41. Dental surgery
42. Pathological anatomy
43. Dentistry Orthopedic
44. Pediatrics
45. Children’s Dentistry
46. Social hygiene and government sanitary and epidemic service
47. Emergency Call Service
48. Cardiovascular Surgery
49. Radiology
50. Rheumatology
51. Radiology
52. Psychiatry, drug and alcohol abuse
53. Pulmonology
54. Psychotherapy
55. Psychiatry
56. Epidemiology
57. Dental Therapy

many more are added every year or are interdisciplinary.

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1. Obstetrics and Gynecology
2. Anaesthesia and Critical care medicine
3. Dermatovenereology
4. Pediatric Surgery
5. Infectious diseases
6. Clinical Laboratory Services
7. Neurology
8. Oncology
9. Public health organising
10. Otolaryngology
11. Ophthalmology
12. Pathological anatomy
13. Pediatrics
14. Psychiatry
15. Emercgency care service
16. Forensic Medical Examination
17. Therapy
18. Traumatology and Orthopedics
19. Phthisiology
20. Surgery
21. General hygiene
22. Epidemiology
23. General dentist
24. Management and economics of pharmacy
25. pharmaceutical Technology
26. Pharmaceutical chemistry and pharmacognosy
27. Management of nursing activities
28. Endocrinology
29. Radiology
30. Social hygiene and government sanitary and epidemic service
31. Midwifery and gynecology
32. Roentgenology

and, more

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The Star of Life is a blue, six-pointed star, outlined with a white border which features the rod of Asclepius in the center. Internationally, it represents emergency medical services (EMS) units and personnel.

The six branches of the star are symbols of the six main tasks executed by rescuers all through the emergency chain:

1.    Detection: The first rescuers on the scene, usually untrained civilians or those involved in the incident, observe the scene, understand the problem, identify the dangers to themselves and the others, and take appropriate measures to ensure their safety on the scene (environmental, electricity, chemicals, radiation, etc.).

2.    Reporting: The call for professional help is made and dispatch is connected with the victims, providing emergency medical dispatch.

3.    Response: The first rescuers provide first aid and immediate care to the extent of their capabilities.

4.    On scene care: The EMS personnel arrive and provide immediate care to the extent of their capabilities on-scene.

5.    Care in Transit: The EMS personnel proceed to transfer the patient to a hospital via an ambulance or helicopter for specialized care. They provide medical care during the transportation.

6.    Transfer to Definitive care: Appropriate specialized care is provided at the hospital.

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Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner, either the initial training to become a doctor (i.e., medical school and internship) or additional training thereafter (e.g., residency and fellowship).

A person can also become a Paramedic/clinical officer /Physician assistant. This is what the many brave individuals in war zones and Africa do to save millions of lives.

Specialities usually fit into one of two broad categories: “Medicine” and “Surgery.” “Medicine” refers to the practice of non-operative medicine, and most subspecialties in this area require preliminary training in “Internal Medicine“.

Surgical specialties employ operative treatment. Surgery has many sub-specialties, including general surgery, cardiovascular surgery, colorectal surgery, neurosurgery, maxillofacial surgery, orthopedic surgery, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, oncologic surgery, transplant surgery, trauma surgery, urology, vascular surgery, and pediatric surgery.
Internal medicine is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, management and nonsurgical treatment of unusual or serious diseases, either of one particular organ system or of the body as a whole.


There are many subspecialities (or subdisciplines) of internal medicine:

•    Cardiology
•    Critical care medicine
•    Endocrinology
•    Gastroenterology
•    Geriatrics
•    Haematology
•    Hepatology
•    Infectious diseases
•    Nephrology
•    Oncology
•    Pediatrics
•    Pulmonology/Pneumology/Respirology
•    Rheumatology
•    Sleep medicine.

Other major specialties
The followings are some major medical specialties that do not directly fit into any of the above mentioned groups.
•    Anesthesiology
•    Dermatology
•    Emergency medicine is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of acute or life-threatening conditions, including trauma, surgical, medical, pediatric, and psychiatric emergencies.
•    Family medicine, family practice, general practice or primary care
•    Obstetrics and gynecology
•    Medical Genetics
•    Neurology
•    Ophthalmology

•    Pediatrics
•    Physical medicine and rehabilitation
•    Psychiatry
•    Preventive medicine is the branch of medicine concerned with preventing disease.
        o    Community health or public health
        o    Occupational medicine’s principal role is the provision of health advice to organizations and individuals to ensure that the highest standards of health and safety at work can be achieved and maintained.
        o    Aerospace medicine deals with medical problems related to flying and space travel.


Interdisciplinary fields
Some interdisciplinary sub-specialties of medicine include:
Addiction medicine deals with the treatment of addiction.
Biomedical Engineering is a field dealing with the application of engineering principles to medical practice.
Clinical pharmacology is concerned with how systems of therapeutics interact with patients.
Conservation medicine studies the relationship between human and animal health, and environmental conditions. Also known as ecological medicine, environmental medicine, or medical geology.
Diving medicine (or hyperbaric medicine) is the prevention and treatment of diving-related problems.
Forensic medicine deals with medical questions in legal context, such as determination of the time and cause of death.
Laser medicine involves the use of lasers in the diagnostics and/or treatment of various conditions.
Sexual medicine is concerned with diagnosing, assessing and treating all disorders related to sexuality.

Sports medicine deals with the treatment and preventive care of athletes, amateur and professional. The team includes specialty physicians and surgeons, athletic trainers, physical therapists, coaches, other personnel, and, of course, the athlete.
Therapeutics is the field, more commonly referenced in earlier periods of history, of the various remedies that can be used to treat disease and promote health.
Veterinary medicine; veterinarians apply similar techniques as physicians to the care of animals.

All the above can be studied with us! Who is in?

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Inspired by the progressive ideas which D. I. Pisarev, the most eminent of the Russian literary critics of the 1860s and I. M. Sechenov, the Father of Russian physiology, were spreading, Pavlov abandoned his religious career and decided to devote his life to science. In 1870 he enrolled in the physics and mathematics faculty at the University of Saint Petersburg to take the course in natural science.

In the 1890s, Pavlov was investigating the gastric function of dogs by externalizing a salivary gland so he could collect, measure, and analyze the saliva and what response it had to food under different conditions. He noticed that the dogs tended to salivate before food was actually delivered to their mouths, and set out to investigate this “psychic secretion”, as he called it. Conscious until his very last moment, Pavlov asked one of his students to sit beside his bed and to record the circumstances of his dying. He wanted to create unique evidence of subjective experiences of this terminal phase of life.

Pavlov contributed to many areas of physiology and neurology. Most of his work involved research in temperament, conditioning and involuntary reflex actions. Pavlov performed and directed experiments on digestion, eventually publishing The Work of the Digestive Glands in 1897, after 12 years of research. His experiments earned him the 1904 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine. These experiments included surgically extracting portions of the digestive system from animals, severing nerve bundles to determine the effects, and implanting fistulas between digestive organs and an external pouch to examine the organ’s contents. This research served as a base for broad research on the digestive system.

Pavlov directed all his indefatigable energy towards scientific reforms. He devoted much effort to transforming the physiological institutions headed by him into world centres of scientific knowledge, and it is generally acknowledged that he succeeded in this endeavor.

Pavlov nurtured a great school of physiologists, which produced many distinguished pupils. He left the richest scientific legacy – a brilliant group of pupils, who would continue developing the ideas of their master, and a host of followers all over the world.

Pavlov extended the definitions of the four temperament types under study at the time: phlegmatic, choleric, sanguine, and melancholic, updating the names to “the strong and impetuous type, the strong equilibrated and quiet type, the strong equilibrated and lively type, and the weak type.”
Carl Jung continued Pavlov’s work on TMI and correlated the observed shutdown types in animals with his own introverted and extroverted temperament types in humans. Introverted persons, he believed, were more sensitive to stimuli and reached a TMI state earlier than their extroverted counterparts. This continuing research branch is gaining the name highly sensitive persons.
William Sargant and others continued the behavioral research in mental conditioning to achieve memory implantation and brainwashing (any effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and beliefs in a person).

As Pavlov’s work became known in the West, particularly through the writings of John B. Watson, the idea of “conditioning” as an automatic form of learning became a key concept in the developing specialism of comparative psychology, and the general approach to psychology that underlay it, behaviorism. The British philosopher Bertrand Russell was an enthusiastic advocate of the importance of Pavlov’s work for philosophy of mind.Pavlov’s research on conditional reflexes greatly influenced not only science, but also popular culture. The phrase “Pavlov’s dog” is often used to describe someone who merely reacts to a situation rather than using critical thinking. Pavlovian conditioning was a major theme in Aldous Huxley’s dystopian novel, Brave New World, and also to a large degree in Thomas Pynchon’s Gravity’s Rainbow.

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St. Petersburg Pavlov State Medical University offers postgraduate educational program (internship, residency, fellowship courses) for medical graduates in more than 40 medical specialties. Every year more than 300 physicians undergo postgraduate training.

• University has following Scientific Research Institutes:
• Scientific Research Institute of Cardio-Vascular Pathology
• Scientific Research Institute of Pulmonology
• Scientific Research Institute of Nephrology
• Scientific Research Institute of Pharmacology
• Scientific Research Institute of Bone Marrow Transplantation

The research activity is also conducted by all the chairs and by 48 scientific laboratories and more than 20 clinical laboratories (breath physiology investigation; cardiovascular system physiology investigation, clinical biochemistry etc)

The University regularly organizes the work of local (mostly for practical doctors’ education), all-Russian and international scientific conferences; its specialists participate in scientific conferences held abroad (USA, European countries etc) Clinical (for clinical departments) and scientific activity are obligatory parts of work of all teaching staff.

Some clinical departments of the University work with other Clinical Research Institutes and big clinical centers of St. Petersburg, which are not directly included in our structure but are conduct joint research work with the University:

• Clinical Research Institute of Traumatology
• Clinical Research Institute of Influenza
• Institute of Oncology
• St. Petersburg Center of Rheumatology
• St. Petersburg clinic for Infection Diseases (Botkin Hospital)

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At present the University Partners with :

# University of Groningen (Netherlands),
# Karolinska Institute (Sweden),
# National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
# International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO (France)
# University of Kuopio (Finland),
# Nippon Medical School (Japan)
# The Rudolf Magnus Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands
# Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (США)
# Duke University, North Carolina (USA)
# University of Turku (Finland),
and others.

The University is constantly attending important world University conferences and seminars in the filed of medical research to keep itself abreast of the latest developments in this fast changing medical arena.

For eg. the Joint EBMT Pediatric Working Party – Raisa Gorbacheva Third Memorial Meeting on Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Immunology Days in St. Petersburg, AACC Annual Meeting (American Association for Clinical Chemistry ), Therapeutic Congress of Saint-Petersburg and North-Western Region of Russia , Orthodontia Seminar , etc.

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